Saturday, December 22, 2007
The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde
The Picture of Dorian Gray is the only published novel written by Oscar Wilde, and first came out as the lead story in Lippincott's Monthly Magazine on June 20, 1890. Wilde later revised this edition, making several alterations, and adding new chapters; the amended version was published by Ward, Lock, and Company in April 1891.
The novel tells of a young man named Dorian Gray, the subject of a painting by artist Basil Hallward, who is greatly impressed by Dorian's physical beauty and becomes strongly infatuated with him, believing that his beauty is responsible for a new mode in his art. Talking in Basil's garden, Dorian meets Lord Henry Wotton, a friend of Basil's, and becomes enthralled by Lord Henry's world view. Espousing a new kind of hedonism, Lord Henry suggests that the only thing worth pursuing in life is beauty, and the fulfilment of the senses. Realising that one day his beauty will fade, Dorian cries out, wishing that the portrait Basil has painted of him would age rather than himself. Dorian's wish is fulfilled, subsequently plunging him into a series of debauched acts. The portrait serves as a reminder of the effect each act has upon his soul, with each sin being displayed as a disfigurement of his form, or through a sign of aging.
The Picture of Dorian Gray is considered one of the last works of classic gothic horror fiction with a strong Faustian theme. It deals with the artistic movement of the decadents, and homosexuality, both of which caused some controversy when the book was first published. However, in modern times, the book has been referred to as "one of the modern classics of Western literature."
The novel begins with Lord Henry Wotton observing the artist Basil Hallward painting the portrait of a handsome young man named Dorian Gray. Dorian arrives later, meeting Lord Henry Wotton. After hearing Lord Henry's world view, Dorian begins to think that beauty is the only worthwhile aspect of life, and the only thing left to pursue. He wishes that the portrait of him which Basil is painting would grow old instead of him. Under the influence of Lord Henry, Dorian begins an exploration of his senses. He discovers an actress, Sibyl Vane, who performs Shakespeare in a dingy theatre. Dorian approaches her, and very soon, proposes marriage. Sibyl, who refers to him as "Prince Charming", rushes home to tell her skeptical mother and brother. Her protective brother, James, tells her that if "Prince Charming" ever harms her, he will kill him.
Dorian then invites Basil and Lord Henry to see Sibyl perform in Romeo and Juliet. Sibyl, whose only previous knowledge of love was through the love of theatre, suddenly loses her acting abilities through the experience of true love with Dorian, and performs very badly. Dorian rejects her, saying that her beauty was in her art, and if she could no longer act, he was no longer interested in her. Once he returns home, Dorian notices that Basil's portrait of him has changed. After examining the painting, Dorian realizes that his wish has come true - the portrait's expression now bears a subtle sneer, and later ages with each grave sin committed, whilst his own outward appearance remains unchanged. He decides to reconcile with Sibyl, but Lord Henry arrives in the morning to say that Sibyl has killed herself by swallowing prussic acid. Over the next eighteen years he experiments with every vice, mostly under the influence of a "poisonous" French novel, a present from Lord Henry. Wilde never reveals the title but his inspiration was likely drawn from Joris-Karl Huysmans's À rebours (Against Nature) due to the likenesses that exist between The Picture of Dorian Gray and À rebours.
One night before he leaves for Paris, Basil arrives to question Dorian about the rumours of his indulgences. Dorian does not deny the debauchery. He takes Basil to the portrait which is revealed to have become ugly under Dorian's sins. In a fit of anger, Dorian blames the artist for his fate, and stabs him to death. He then blackmails an old friend named Alan Cambell, who happened to be a chemist, into destroying the body. Wishing to escape his crime, Dorian travels to an opium den. James Vane happens to be nearby, and hears someone refer to Dorian as "Prince Charming". He follows Dorian out and attempts to shoot him, but he is deceived when Dorian asks James to look at him in the lane, saying that he is too young to have been involved with his sister eighteen years ago. James releases Dorian, but is approached by a woman from the opium den, who chastises him for not killing Dorian and tells him that Dorian has not aged for the past eighteen years.
Whilst at dinner one night, Dorian sees Sibyl Vane's brother stalking the grounds and fears for his life. However, during a game-shooting party the next day James is accidentally shot and killed by one of the hunters. After returning to London, Dorian informs Lord Henry that he will be good from now on, and has started by not breaking the heart of his latest innocent conquest, a vicar's daughter in a country town, named Hetty Merton. At his apartment, he wonders if the portrait would have begun to change back, losing its senile, sinful appearance, now that he has changed his immoral ways. He unveils the portrait to find that it has become worse. Seeing this he begins to question the motives behind his act, whether it was merely vanity, curiosity, or seeking new emotional excess. Deciding that only a full confession would truly absolve him, but lacking any guilt and fearing the consequences, he decides to destroy the last vestige of his conscience. In a fit of rage, he picks up the knife that killed Basil Hallward, and plunges it into the painting. Hearing his cry from inside the locked room, his servants send for the police, who find Dorian's body, suddenly aged and withered, beside the portrait, which has reverted to its original form; it is only through his rings that the corpse can be identified.
In a letter, Wilde stated that the main characters of The Picture of Dorian Gray are in different ways reflections of himself: "Basil Hallward is what I think I am: Lord Henry what the world thinks me: Dorian what I would like to be—in other ages, perhaps."
* Dorian Gray - an extremely handsome young man who becomes enthralled with Lord Henry's idea of a new hedonism. He begins to indulge in every kind of pleasure, moral and immoral.
* Basil Hallward - an artist who becomes infatuated with Dorian's beauty. Dorian helps Basil to realise his artistic potential, as Basil's portrait of Dorian proves to be his finest work.
* Lord Henry Wotton - a nobleman who is a friend to Basil initially, but later becomes more intrigued with Dorian's beauty and naivety. Extremely witty, Lord Henry is seen as a critique of late Victorian culture espousing a view of indulgent hedonism. He corrupts Dorian with his world view, as Dorian attempts to emulate him. Basil calls him "Harry".
* Sibyl Vane - An extremely poor but beautiful actress with whom Dorian falls in love. Her love for Dorian destroys her acting career, as she no longer finds pleasure in portraying fictional love when she has a true love in reality.
* James Vane - Sibyl's brother who is to become a sailor and leave for Australia. He is extremely protective of his sister, especially as his mother is useless and concerned only with Dorian's money. He is hesitant to leave his sister, believing Dorian will harm her.
* Mrs. Vane - Sibyl and James's mother, an old and faded actress. She has consigned herself and Sibyl to a poor theatre house to pay her debts. She is extremely pleased when Sibyl meets Dorian, being impressed by his status and wealth.
* Alan Campbell - once a good friend of Dorian, he ended their friendship when Dorian's reputation began to come into question.
* Lady Agatha - Lord Henry’s aunt. Lady Agatha is active in charity work in the London slums.
* Lord Fermor - Lord Henry's uncle. He informs Lord Henry about Dorian's lineage.
* Victoria, Lady Henry Wotton - Lord Henry's wife, who only appears once in the novel whilst Dorian waits for Lord Henry. She later divorces Lord Henry in exchange for a pianist.
* Victor - a loyal servant to Dorian. Dorian's increasing paranoia, however, leads him to use Victor to complete pointless errands in an attempt to dissuade him from entering the room that houses Dorian's portrait.
Aestheticism and duplicity
Aestheticism is a strong theme in The Picture of Dorian Gray, and is tied in with the concept of the double life. Although Dorian is hedonistic, when Basil accuses him of making Lord Henry's sister's name a "by-word", Dorian replies "Take care, Basil. You go too far" suggesting that Dorian still cares about his outward image and standing within Victorian society. Wilde highlights Dorian's pleasure of living a double life, describing how Dorian returns home sometimes to look at his portrait, and, when looking at the disfigurement of the portrait, "[grows] more and more enamoured of his own beauty, more and more interested in the corruption of his own soul." Not only does Dorian enjoy this sensation in private, but he also feels "keenly the terrible pleasure of a double life" when attending a society gathering just 24 hours after committing a murder.
This duplicity and indulgence is most evident in Dorian's visits to the opium dens of London. Wilde conflates the images of the upper class and lower class by having the supposedly upright Dorian visit the impoverished districts of London. Lord Henry asserts that "crime belongs exclusively to the lower orders...I should fancy that crime was to them what art is to us, simply a method of procuring extraordinary sensations", which suggests that Dorian is both the criminal and the aesthete combined in one man. This is perhaps linked to Robert Louis Stevenson's Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, which Wilde admired. The division that was witnessed in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, although extreme, is evident in Dorian Gray, who attempts to contain the two divergent parts of his personality, this is a recurring theme in many of the gothic novels of which "The Picture Of Dorian Gray" is one of the last.
The name "Dorian" has connotations of the Dorians, an ancient Hellenic tribe. Robert Mighall suggests that this could be Wilde hinting at a connection to "Greek love", a euphemism for the homoeroticism that was accepted as everyday in ancient Greece. Indeed, Dorian is described using the semantic field of the Greek Gods, being likened to Adonis, a person who looks as if "he were made of ivory and rose-leaves." However, Wilde does not mention any homosexual acts explicitly, and descriptions of Dorian's "sins" are often vague, although there does appear to be an element of homoeroticism in the competition between Lord Henry and Basil, both of whom compete for Dorian's attention. Both of them make comments about Dorian in praise of his good looks and youthful demeanour, Basil going as far to say that "as long as I live, the personality of Dorian Gray will dominate me." However, whilst Basil is shunned, Dorian wishes to emulate Lord Henry, which in turn rouses Lord Henry from his "characteristic languor to a desire to influence Dorian, a process that is itself a sublimated expression of homosexuality."
The later corruption of Dorian seems to make what was once a boyish charm become a destructive influence. Basil asks why Dorian's "friendship is so fatal to young men", commenting upon the "shame and sorrow" that the father of one of the disgraced boys displays. Dorian only destroys these men when he becomes "intimate" with them, suggesting that the friendships between Dorian and the men in question become more than simply Platonic. The shame associated with these relationships is bipartite: the families of the boys are upset that their sons may have indulged in a homosexual relationship with Dorian Gray, and also feel shame that they have now lost their place in society, their names having been sullied; their loss of status is encapsulated in Basil's questioning of Dorian: speaking of the Duke of Perth, a disgraced friend of Dorian's, he asks "what gentleman would associate with him?" The novel is considered groundbreaking in the context that, in literature, "Dorian Gray was one of the first in a long list of hedonistic fellows whose homosexual tendencies secured a terrible fate."
At one point, Dorian Gray attends a performance of Richard Wagner's opera, Tannhäuser, and is explicitly said to personally identify with the work. Indeed, the opera bears some striking resemblances with the novel, and, in short, tells the story of a medieval (and historically real) singer, whose art is so beautiful that he causes Venus, the goddess of love herself, to fall in love with him, and to offer him eternal life with her in the Venusburg. Tannhäuser becomes dissatisfied with his life there, however, and elects to return to the harsh world of reality, where, after taking part in a song-contest, he is sternly censured for his sensuality, and eventually dies in his search for repentance and the love of a good woman. It might even be argued that the end of the opera, in which a miracle announces the salvation of Tannhäuser's soul, suggests, perhaps, a more optimistic interpretation of Dorian's end than might otherwise be thought of.
Wilde himself stated that "in every first novel the hero is the author as Christ or Faust." As in Faust, a temptation is placed before the lead character Dorian, the potential for ageless beauty; Dorian indulges in this temptation. In both stories, the lead character entices a beautiful woman to love them and kills not only her, but also that woman's brother, who seeks revenge. Wilde went on to say that the notion behind The Picture of Dorian Gray is "old in the history of literature" but was something to which he had "given a new form".
Unlike Faust, there is no point at which Dorian makes a deal with the devil. However, Lord Henry's cynical outlook on life, and hedonistic nature seems to be in keeping with the idea of the devil's role, that of the temptation of the pure and innocent, qualities which Dorian exemplifies at the beginning of the book. Although Lord Henry takes an interest in Dorian, it does not seem that he is aware of the effect of his actions. However, Lord Henry advises Dorian that "the only way to get rid of a temptation is to yield to it. Resist it, and your soul grows sick with longing"; in this sense, Lord Henry acts as the devil's advocate, "leading Dorian into an unholy pact by manipulating his innocence and insecurity."
Tír na nÓg
Another Irish tale which was of influence is of Oisín and Tír na nÓg (Land of Eternal Youth), a salutory tale of temptation and consequences. See also the Japanese folktale, Urashima Tarō, which shares some similarities, and Rip van Winkle.
When Dorian is telling lord Henry Wotton about his new 'love', Sibyl Vane he refers to all of the Shakespearean plays she has been in, referring to her as the heroine of each play. At a later time, he speaks of his life by quoting Hamlet.
Dorian Gray's "poisonous French novel" is most likely Huysmans' À rebours.
The Picture of Dorian Gray began as a short novel submitted to Lippincott's Monthly Magazine. In 1889, J. M. Stoddart, a proprietor for Lippincott, was in London to solicit short novels for the magazine. Wilde submitted the first version of The Picture of Dorian Gray, which was published on 20 June 1890 in the July edition of Lippincott's. There was a delay in getting Wilde's work to press whilst numerous changes were made to the manuscripts of the novel (some of which survive to this day). Some of these changes were made at Wilde's instigation, and some at Stoddart's. Wilde removed all references to the fictitious book "Le Secret de Raoul", and to its fictitious author, Catulle Sarrazin. The book and its author are still referred to in the published versions of the novel, but are unnamed.
Wilde also attempted to moderate some of the more homoerotic instances in the book, or instances whereby the intentions of the characters may be misconstrued. In the 1890 edition, Basil tells Henry how he "worships" Dorian, and begs him not to "take away the one person that makes my life absolutely lovely to me." The focus for Basil in the 1890 edition seems to be more towards love, whereas the Basil of the 1891 edition cares more for his art, saying "the one person who gives my art whatever charm it may possess: my life as an artist depends on him." The book was also extended greatly: the original thirteen chapters became twenty, and the final chapter was divided into two new chapters. The additions involved the "fleshing out of Dorian as a character" and also provided details about his ancestry, which helped to make his "psychological collapse more prolonged and more convincing."The character of James Vane was also introduced, which helped to elaborate upon Sibyl Vane's character and background; the addition of the character helped to emphasise and foreshadow Dorian's selfish ways, as James foresees Dorian's character, and guesses upon his future dishonourable actions (the inclusion of James Vane's sub-plot also gives the novel a more typically Victorian tinge, part of Wilde's attempts to decrease the controversy surrounding the book). Another notable change is that, in the latter half of the novel, events were specified as taking place around Dorian Gray's 32nd birthday, on 7 November. After the changes, they were specified as taking place around Dorian Gray's 38th birthday, on 9 November, thereby extending the period of time over which the story occurs. The former date is also significant in that it coincides with the year in Wilde's life during which he was introduced to homosexual practices.
The preface to The Picture of Dorian Gray was added, along with other amendments, after the edition published in Lippincott's received criticism. Wilde used it to address these criticisms and defend the novel's reputation. It consists of a collection of statements about the role of the artist, art itself, the value of beauty, and serves as an indicator of the way in which Wilde intends the novel to be read, as well as traces of Wilde's exposure to Daoism and the writings of Zhuangzi. Shortly before penning the preface, Wilde reviewed Herbert A. Giles's translation of the writings of the Chinese Daoist philosopher. In his review, he writes:
The honest ratepayer and his healthy family have no doubt often mocked at the dome-like forehead of the philosopher, and laughed over the strange perspective of the landscape that lies beneath him. If they really knew who he was, they would tremble. For Chuang Tsǔ spent his life in preaching the great creed of Inaction, and in pointing out the uselessness of all things.
Overall, initial critical reception of the book was poor, with the book gaining "certain notoriety for being 'mawkish and nauseous,' 'unclean,' 'effeminate,' and 'contaminating.'" This had much to do with the novel's homoerotic overtones, which caused something of a sensation amongst Victorian critics when first published. A large portion of the criticism was levelled at Wilde's perceived hedonism, and its distorted views of conventional morality. The Daily Chronicle of 30 June 1890 suggests that Wilde's novel contains "one element...which will taint every young mind that comes in contact with it." Although the element is not named explicitly, the homoeroticism of the novel, especially of the first edition, seems the likely subject. The Scots Observer of 5 July 1890 asks why Wilde must "go grubbing in muck-heaps?” Wilde responded to such criticisms by curtailing some of the homoerotic tendencies, and by adding six chapters to the book in an effort to add background.
Allusions from other works
* Numerous songs and band names reference The Picture of Dorian Gray or its title character.
o Morrissey has made many references to Wilde's works; in the song "Glamorous Glue", Morrissey quotes Dorian's affirmation that he is "too much in love" to marry.
o The Libertines also mention Dorian in their song "Narcissist", questioning the worth of being narcissistic.
o U2 also reference Dorian Gray in the song "The Ocean"
o Television Personalities has a song named "A Picture of Dorian Gray"
o Critical Mass has a song called "Dorian Gray", dealing with pornography
o James Blunt used the line "hides my true shape, like Dorian Gray" in his song "Tears and Rain"
o an industrial metal electronica group have also named themselves after the lead character Dorian Gray
o in "Scream," a song about lost love, the band Kill Hannah mention Sibyl Vane as an allusion to committing suicide
o in "You Ruined Everything," the American singer-songwriter Kristeen Young also alludes to Sibyl and her loss of artistic power after falling in love
o in Liz Phair's H.W.C., a song about the youth-giving effects of a male's semen, she sings: "Without you, I'm just another Dorian Gray"
o the song "Dorian" by the band Demons and Wizards, which specifically recalls the story of Dorian Gray
o INXS alludes to the novel in their song 'Who Pays The Price' which includes the lines 'As the years go by/Will it show on your face/Or stay hidden behind some door'
o The Futureheads have a song named 'A Picture of Dorian Gray'
o Farewell Flight also have a song named after Dorian Gray- 'The Murder of Dorian Gray' with the lyrics "Stare back, Dorian Grey, Your picture tells the story well...Stare back, Dorian Grey, Your mirror tells the story well"
o The American rock band Styx alludes to the book on their 1978 album Pieces of Eight. The song "Sing for the Day", written by Tommy Shaw, features the line: 'Ageless and timeless as Dorian Gray'
o A Swedish rock band named Dorian Gray also exists, with the first of their albums being titled The Sounds of Dorian Gray.
o Singer/songwriter Darren Hayes mentions Dorian Gray in his song "The Future Holds a Lion's Heart" from his fourth album. It features the line: 'When my heart was in the attic like The Picture of Dorian Gray'
o American glam metal band Mötley Crüe references Dorian Gray in their song "New Tattoo" in the line: "I could be your Dorian Gray."
o Heavy Metal band Savatage refers to Dorian Gray in the song Tonight He Grins Again from the album Streets: A Rock Opera: Something cold as pain, Burning inside my veins, I walk away, A shadow of Dorian Gray
* Will Self updated the novel by placing events in June 1981, a time according to Self when "Britain was in the process of burning most of its remaining illusions." In Self's novel, the homoeroticism that was merely an undertone of the original work becomes an overt theme: Self's Dorian indulges in homosexual orgies. The portrait of Dorian is replaced with a postmodern piece of art involving video cassette recorders and televisions
* In Amanda Filipacchi's novel Nude Men, one of the main characters is Lady Henrietta, a painter of nude men, who is a female version of Lord Henry from The Picture of Dorian Gray. Like Lord Henry, she states her philosophies (which some might find immoral), in ways that make them sound very logical.
* Rick R. Reed also wrote A Face Without a Heart, a variation on The Picture of Dorian Gray; in lieu of a portrait, Reed has a sophisticated hologram which changes with each sin that Dorian commits
* The Picture of Dorian Gray was also parodied by contemporary journalist and novelist Robert S. Hichens in The Green Carnation
* The 2006 Irvine Welsh novel The Bedroom Secrets of the Master Chefs has a number of similarities with The Picture of Dorian Gray
* In Jasper Fforde's book The Fourth Bear, the protagonist Jack Spratt purchases a new car from a car dealership run by Dorian Gray. The car does not get damaged in accidents with a painting of the car in the boot getting damaged instead. The cars odometer also goes backward with it eventually been destroyed when it reaches zero.
* The American comic book series Starman has the unageing anti-hero The Shade discuss his own friendship with Oscar Wilde. The Shade insists that Dorian Gray is based on a real being, an immortal man who uses a demonic poster to steal souls. Interestingly the author made an error in having the character refer to the novel as the "Portrait of Dorian Gray." Although an unintentional mistake by the author this was later incorporated into a major plot elements for the character.
* Dorian Grey is also mentioned in the film The Seven Year Itch.
* In the third book of the Nancy Drew Girl Detective Super Mystery book series, Nancy participates in a TV reality show about solving mysteries. The name Dorian Gray and Oscar Wilde appear several times as clues (with one of the other cast members mentioning that it was a famous 19th century novel), and Nancy visits Wilde's grave in Paris.
* The character Dorian in the British science-fiction series Blake's Seven channels all his negative emotions and acts into a hideous creature living far beneath the surface of the planet Xenon, in much the same way as Dorian Gray. When the creature is killed, Dorian dies an horrific death.
* In the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode Man of the People, Ambassador Alkar channels all his negative emotions into female 'receptacles' with whom he has bonded. The receptacles suffer from accelerated aging. When the bond is severed Alkar dies of sudden old age.
* In the American TV series Get Smart there is an episode from the fifth season called "Age Before Duty". In this episode, there is a scientist named Felix, who develops a paint that he calls "Dorian Gray". When this paint is used on a picture of somebody to retouch the picture, in order to make the person in it look old, the person ages extremely fast in real life (in a matter of hours; for instance, the episode begins with a man dying of old age, even though he is only 28 years old).
* Dr. John Dorian, the main character on the television show Scrubs, is a reference to Dorian Gray as Dr. Dorian frequently wanders off in fantasy daydreams. Dr. Robert Kelso, the chief of medicine at the fictional hospital in Scrubs is named after Lord Kelso.
Film, television and theatrical adaptations
Main article: Adaptations of The Picture of Dorian Gray
The Picture of Dorian Gray has been the subject of several film remakes.
* According to the BBC, the most notable adaptation was Albert Lewin's 1945 film The Picture of Dorian Gray, which won an Oscar for "Best Cinematography, Black-and-White". One of the most noted aspects of this version was Lewin's choice to portray the film in black and white despite the fact that technicolor was available at the time. Instead, he shot the film in black and white, and used a "breathtaking" technicolor effect to show the effects Dorian's actions have on the portrait.
* The BBC created a highly regarded TV version in 1976, with Peter Firth as Dorian Gray.
* Dorian Gray was a character portrayed by Stuart Townsend in Stephen Norrington's The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, which was based on the graphic novel of the same name, written by Alan Moore. Dorian Gray was not originally included in Moore's graphic novel, and Dorian's inclusion was a decision made by Norrington. A "League of Extraordinary Gentlemen" is assembled in an attempt to stop the villain "The Fantom" from destroying Venice. Dorian Gray is selected for his immortality; however, the film version expands upon the novel by suggesting that not only does the portrait keep Dorian from aging, but also from suffering injuries. In addition, Dorian is unable to look at his own portrait; if he does, then the "spell" will be broken, and his powers will be lost — effectively killing him, as he had already reached an age impossible for any mortal being, as well as suffered numerous injuries. During the film, he is revealed to have had a past relationship with fellow immortal Mina Harker — here a vampire — but it is later revealed that he is actually a double agent, secretly working for the Fantom, who has stolen his portrait to blackmail him into acquiring samples of the other League members so that he can duplicate their powers. At the conclusion of the film, Dorian fights Mina in a duel, which ends when he is pinned to the wall with his own sword and forced to look at his portrait, turning him to dust in a matter of seconds.
* A new film version of The Picture of Dorian Gray is currently in production, directed by Jon Cunningham and filmed in the Czech Republic.
* The Faustian theme of The Picture of Dorian Gray has also made it a popular choice for television, being adapted for use as a storyline for episodes in some television series':
o The theme of being able to remain young forever was used in the British science fiction TV show Blake's 7 in the episode Rescue which debuted season 4. In it a character named Dorian forces others to absorb his physical and mental defects via a monster he holds in a cave.
o Star Trek: The Next Generation also used the novel as inspiration for its 129th episode Man of the People. In the episode, an Ambassador Vel Alkar uses women as an object to which all of his negative aspects can be channelled. This results in the women's dispositions changing, each becoming more and more irritable. They also begin to age much more quickly, until they "burn out" and die. Deanna Troi becomes a near victim, until a plan is created to cause Vel Alkar to receive all of the emotions he has channelled away from himself. When this occurs, he rapidly ages and dies from his own emotions, much in the same way Dorian Gray does after confronting his portrait at the end of The Picture of Dorian Gray
* An operatic version of The Picture of Dorian Gray was staged by Lowell Liebermann. Liebermann wanted to base a play on The Picture of Dorian Gray because "the book made an impression on [him] as no other book has yet done". Premiered at the Monte Carlo Opera in 1996, Liebermann put a lot of emphasis on the musical score of the play, saying:
The entire opera is based on a twelve-note row which is used not serially, but tonally. It is first heard at the beginning of the opera in pizzicato cellos and basses. It is harmonised as Dorian's theme and then as the painting theme. As the painting disintegrates and becomes corrupted, so does its theme. The twelve consecutive scenes of the opera occur in the keys of the consecutive pitches of the note-row. In this manner the entire opera becomes one grand passacaglia, a variation of Dorian's theme, a picture of the picture---the tonal structure generated by a non-tonal device, a further metaphor for the form/content divide that generates the novel's dramatic structure.
* The afternoon ABC daytime drama Dark Shadows (1966-1971) featured a storyline clearly inspired by Wilde's novel, in which a portrait of Quentin Collins aged grotesquely while Collins himself remained youthful. ABC also presented an adaptation of Dorian Gray itself as a 1973 entry in its Movie of the Week series directed by Glenn Jordan, produced by Dan Curtis and starring Shane Briant.
* The Sins of Dorian Gray is a 1983 ABC television movie featuring Belinda Bauer as an actress whose first screen test as a young starlet ages, while she becomes a star known for remaining unusually youthful.
Footnotes and references
1. ^ The Picture of Dorian Gray (Penguin Classics) - Introduction
2. ^ Notes on The Picture of Dorian Gray - An overview of the text, sources, influences, themes and a summary of The Picture of Dorian Gray
3. ^ glbtq >> literature >> Ghost and Horror Fiction - a website which discusses ghost and horror fiction from the 19th century onwards (retrieved 30 July 2006)
4. ^ Books of the poet: Oscar Wilde - a website which gives synopses for several books, including The Picture of Dorian Gray (retrieved 27 August 2006
5. ^ Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray. Highbeam Research. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
6. ^ The Modern Library - a synopsis of the book coupled with a short biography of Oscar Wilde (retrieved 6 July 2006)
7. ^ a b The Picture of Dorian Gray (Penguin Classics) - Chapter XII
8. ^ The Picture of Dorian Gray (Penguin Classics) - Chapter XI
9. ^ The Picture of Dorian Gray (Penguin Classics) - Introduction
10. ^ The Picture of Dorian Gray (Penguin Classics) - Chapter I
11. ^ glbtq >> literature >> Wilde, Oscar - an analysis of the works of Oscar Wilde (retrieved 29 July 2006)
12. ^ Meloy, Kilian (2007-09-24). "Influential Gay Characters in Literature". AfterElton.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
13. ^ Oscar Wilde Quotes - a quote from Oscar Wilde about The Picture of Dorian Gray and its likeness to Faust (retrieved 7 July 2006)
14. ^ 'The Picture of Dorian Gray (Penguin Classics) - Preface
15. ^ The Picture of Dorian Gray (Penguin Classics) - Chapter II
16. ^ The Picture of Dorian Gray - a summary and commentary of Chapter II of The Picture of Dorian Gray (retrieved 29 July 2006)
17. ^ The Picture of Dorian Gray (Penguin Classics) - A Note on the Text
18. ^ GraderSave: ClassicNote - a summary and analysis of the book and its preface (retrieved 5 July 2006)
19. ^ The Preface first appeared with the publication of the novel in 1891. But by June of 1890, Wilde was defending his book (see The Letters of Oscar Wilde], Merlin Holland and Rupert Hart-Davis eds., Henry Holt (2000), ISBN 0-8050-5915-6 and The Artist as Critic, ed. Richard Ellmann, University of Chicago (1968), ISBN 0-226-89764-8 — where Wilde's review of Giles's translation is incorrectly identified with Confucius.) Wilde's review of Giles's translation was published in The Speaker of 8 February 1890.
20. ^ Ellmann, The Artist as Critic, 222.
21. ^ The Modern Library - a synopsis of the book coupled with a short biography of Oscar Wilde (retrieved 6 July 2006)
22. ^ CliffsNotes::The Picture of Dorian Gray - an introduction and overview the book (retrieved 5 July 2006)
23. ^ IMEAT - Morrissey's Sources - a site that chronicles The Smiths and Morrissey lyrics. This page deals sepecifically with the allusions to other works that can be found in Morrissey and The Smiths' lyrics (retrieved 26 August 2006)
24. ^ Observer review: Dorian by Will Self - a review of Will Self's reworking of The Picture of Dorian Gray (retrieved 26 August 2006)
25. ^ BBC - Films - review - a review of Albert Lewin's film version of The Picture of Dorian Gray (retrieved 27 August 2006
26. ^ Awards for The Picture of Dorian Gray - a list of awards presented to Albert Lewin's film version of The Picture of Dorian Gray (retrieved 27 August 2006)
27. ^ Movie Review - Picture of Dorian Gray, The - a review of Albert Lewin's film version of The Picture of Dorian Gray (retrieved 27 August 2006)
28. ^ Dorian Gray, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen - an overview of Dorian Gray as he is presented in the film The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (film) (retrieved 27 August 2006)
29. ^ IMDB listing for new movie (retrieved 21 June 2007)
30. ^ OperaWorld.com's Opera Insights: The Picture of Dorian Gray - a discussion of The Picture of Dorian Gray, and the play by the same name composed by Lowell Libermann (retrieved 30 August 2006])
31. ^ us Operaweb - The Picture of Dorian Gray - an overview of the operatic version of The Picture of Dorian Gray, with quotes from the composer (retrieved 30 August) 2006
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia